Analogical Modeling Bibliography


Basic introductions

Skousen, Royal. (1995). "Analogy: A non-rule alternative to neural networks". Rivista di linguistica 7:213-231. (Click here for a summary)

Lonsdale, Deryle (2002). "Analogical Modeling: Background, theory, algorithm, and applications", Workshop on Statistical Language Processing; University of Bergen, Norway; September/October. (Contact the author for slides)

Skousen, Royal. (2005). "Analogical Modeling"Quantitative Linguistics: An International Handbook. Reinhard Khler, Gabriel Altmann, , and Rajmund Piotrowski (Eds.), 705-716. Berlin:Walter de Gruyter.

Skousen, Royal. (2003). Analogical Modeling: Exemplars, Rules, and Quantum Computing. Berkeley Linguistics Society.

Eddington, David and Deryle Lonsdale (2007). Analogical Modeling: An Update. ESSLLI 2007 Workshop on Exemplar-based Models of Language Modeling and Use; Dublin, Ireland; August 2007.

Skousen, Royal (2014). Exemplar-Based Linguistics. Invited lecture at University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign.

Fundamental works

Skousen, Royal (2006). Expanding Analogical Modeling into a General Theory of Language Prediction. This invited paper was delivered at the Max Planck Institute in Leipzig, Germany on 23 September 2006 and discusses issues of how to represent variables in analogical modeling (AM).

Skousen, Royal, Deryle Lonsdale, and Dilworth B. Parkinson (eds). (2002). Analogical Modeling: An exemplar-based approach to language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.  (table of contents)

Skousen, Royal. (2000). Analogical Modeling and Quantum Computing. Posted as a preprint at, paper number 0008112 (search for author Skousen).

Skousen, Royal. (1989). Analogical Modeling of Language. Dordrecht: Kluwer.    (table of contents)    (introduction)

Skousen, Royal. (1992). Analogy and Structure. Dordrecht: Kluwer.    (table of contents)    (introduction)

Skousen, Royal. (1998). "Natural Statistics in Language Modeling". Journal of Quantitative Linguistics 5:246-255. (Click here for a summary)


Quantum Analogical Modeling

Skousen, Royal (2010). Quantum Analogical Modeling with Homogeneous Pointers.

Skousen, Royal (2010). Reducing control-control-not to control-not and not operators.

Skousen, Royal (2010). Reversible Operators.

Skousen, Royal (2007). Quantum Computing of Analogical Modeling of Language. This is a paper given at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence's Spring Symposium session on Quantum Interaction at Stanford University on 26 March 2007; it is an abbreviated version of the QAM paper posted on <> on 18 October 2005. Here are the slides from this presentation.

Skousen, Royal (2005). Quantum Analogical Modeling: A General Quantum Computing Algorithm for Predicting Language Behavior. Posted on <> on 18 October 2005, this paper gives a full explication with a fully developed example of how quantum analogical modeling (QAM) works.


Psycholinguistic aspects

Lonsdale, Deryle and Hitokazu Matsushita (2013). Modeling speech errors by analogy. In: (Robert L. West & Terrence C. Stewart (Eds.)) Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling (ICCM 2013), Cognitive Science Society, pp 17-22.

Eddington, David. (2000). "Analogy and the dual-route model of morphology", Lingua 100:281-298.

Chandler, Steve. (1993). "Are rules and modules really necessary for explaining language?". Journal of Pyscholinguistic Research 22:593-606.

Chandler, Steve. (1994). "An exemplar-based approach to language acquisition". Paper presented at the Workshop on Cognitive Models of Language Acquisition, University of Tilburg, The Netherlands, 21-23 April 1994.

Chandler, Steve. (1995). "Non-Declarative linguistics: Some neuropsychological perspectives". Rivista di linguistica 7:233-247.

Derwing, Bruce L. and Royal Skousen. (1989). "Real-Time Morphology: Symbolic Rules or Analogical Networks". Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 48-62. Berkeley, California: Berkeley Linguistics Society.

Derwing, Bruce L. and Royal Skousen. (1989). "Morphology in the Mental Lexicon: A New Look at Analogy". Morphology Yearbook 2:55-71.


Comparisons with other approaches

Eddington, David (2002).  "Dissociation in Italian conjugations: A single-route account", Brain and Language, 81.291-302

Chandler, Steve and Royal Skousen. (1997). "Analogical Modeling and the English Past Tense: A Reply to Jaeger et al. 1996".

Daelemans, Walter, Steven Gillis, and Gert Durieux (1994). "Skousen's Analogical Modeling Algorithm: A Comparison with Lazy Learning". Proceedings of the Conference on New Models of Language Acquisition. Manchester, England.

Robinson, Derek. (1995). "Index and analogy: A footnote to the theory of signs". Rivista di linguistica 7:249-272.


Language applications

Eddington, David (2006). Look Ma, No Rules: Applying Skousen's Analogical Approach to Spanish Nominals in -in. Phonology, Morphology, and the Empirical Imperative: Papers in Honour of Bruce L. Derwing. ed. by Grace Wiebe, Gary Libben, Tom Priestly, Ron Smyth, and H. Samuel Wang. Taipei:Crane. pp. 371-407.

Elzinga, Dirk (2006). English adjective comparison and analogy. Lingua 116:757-770.  (download data sets for this paper)

Danielyan, Inna Dodge and Deryle Lonsdale (2006). Modeling Russian verbs of motion: an analogical account; Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society; Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 1239-1244.

Chapman, Don and Royal Skousen (2005). Analogical Modeling and Morphological Change: The Case of the Adjectival Negative Prefix in English. English Language and Linguistics 9:2, 1-25.

Eddington, David (2004). Issues in Modeling Language Processing Analogically. Lingua 144:849-871.

Lonsdale, Deryle and Michael Manookin (2004). Combining learning approaches for incremental on-line parsing. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Conceptual Modeling; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 160-165.

Manookin, Michael and Deryle Lonsdale (2004). Resolving automatic prepositional phrase attachments by non-statistical means; LACUS Forum XXX: Language, Thought, and Reality; pp. 301-312; The Linguistic Association of Canada and the United States.

Lonsdale, Deryle (2004). Modeling stress in Salish languages; LACUS Forum XXX: Language, Thought, and Reality; pp. 291-300; The Linguistic Association of Canada and the United States.

Eddington, David (2003).  "A Computational Approach to Resolving Certain Issues in Spanish Stress Placement", Laboratory Approaches to Spanish Phonology, ed. by Timothy Face, pp. 95-115. Berlin:Mouton de Gruyter.

Lonsdale, Deryle (2003). "Doing Lushootseed Morphology by Analogy", Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Salish and Neighboring Languages; UBC Working Papers in Linguistics, 175-183.

Eddington, David (2002).  "
A Usage-based Simulation of Spanish S-weakening", Forthcoming in Journal of Italian Linguistics.

Eddington, David (2002).  "Spanish gender assignment in an analogical framework", Journal of Quantitative Lingusitics, 9.49-75.

Eddington, David (2002).  "
Spanish diminutive formation without rules or constraints". Linguistics,  40.395-419.

Eddington, David. (2000). "Spanish stress assignment within Analogical Modeling of Language". Language 76:92-109.

Lonsdale, Deryle (2002). "An analogical model for Vedic cantillation". Paper presented at the Linguistic Association of Canada and the United States; University of Cincinnati, Toledo, OH.

Chandler, Steve. (1998). "Instance-based reference for past-tense verb-forms: An experimental study". Paper presented at the First International Conference on the Mental Lexicon, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 3 September 1998.

Derwing, Bruce, and Royal Skousen. (1994). "Productivity and the English Past Tense: Testing Skousen's Analogy Model". The Reality of Linguistic Rules, edited by Susan D. Lima, Roberta L. Corrigan, and Gregory K. Iverson, 193-218. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Jones, Daniel. (1996). Analogical Natural Language Processing. Studies in Computational Linguistics. London: University College London Press.

Wulf, Doug. (1996). "An Analogical Approach to Plural Formation in German". Eighth European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information: Proceedings of the First Student Session, edited by Anne-Marie Mineur.